Climate on Ice: Ocean-Ice Dynamics

Originally posted on Science Matters:

Sea ice is not simple. Some Background is in order.

When white men started to explore the north of America, they first encountered the Crees. Hudson Bay posts were established to trade goods for pelts, especially the beavers used for making those tall hats worn by British ceremonial guards.

The Crees told the whites that further on toward the Arctic Circle there were others they called “eskimos”. The Cree word means “eaters of raw meat” and it is derogatory. The Inuit (as they call themselves) were found to have dozens of words for snow, a necessary vocabulary for surviving in the Arctic world.

A recent lexicon of sea ice terminology in Nunavik (Appendix A of the collective work Siku: Knowing our Ice, 2008) comprises no fewer than 93 different words. These include general appellations such as siku, but also terms as specialized as qautsaulittuq, ice that breaks after its strength…

View original 1,626 more words

Invisible Indigo – Vaporised Violet

Originally posted on MalagaBay:

Invisible Indigo - Vaporised Violet

The Wikipedia Wizards are working wonders with human colour perception.

According to the Carl Zeiss web site the visible spectrum “covers the wavelength spectrum between 380 nm and 780 nm.”

The visible area is the range of electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye.

It covers the wavelength spectrum between 380 nm and 780 nm.

Zeiss – Spectrometer Modules For the UV to the NIR wavelength range
http://www.zeiss.com/microscopy/en_de/products/spectrometer-modules/overview-wavelength-range-spectrometer.html

Back in 2004 the Wikipedia Wizards agreed with Carl Zeiss although they added the caveat that “400 nm to 700 nm” was “more common”.

The optical spectrum (visible light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

The optical spectrum is a composite, or mixture, of the various colors.

There are no exact bounds to the optical spectrum ; a light-adapted eye typically has a maximum sensitivity of ~555 nm…

View original 1,556 more words

Magnitude 4.3 Earthquake Rocks Kent: Woke Some People Up

Originally posted on Tallbloke's Talkshop:

Epicentre of the 4.3 quake was at 9.5km depth near Sandwich, Kent.

_83158800_england_kentquake

BBC report

View original 12 more words

Dr. Pierre-Marie Robitaille: Sun on Trial | EU2014

Originally posted on Taking Sides:

Published on May 30, 2014

For nearly 150 years despite the lack of observational evidence, the Sun has been considered to be a ball of gaseous material. Such a postulate rests on mathematical arguments. Nonetheless, observations, not mathematics, properly determine the phases of matter. In this light, a systematic review of 40 solar findings provides ample proof that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter In this presentation, the phase of the Sun will be discussed by contrasting the gas-based Standard Solar Model (SSM) with the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM). Unlike the SSM, the LMHSM does not permit the Sun to radiate internally. This is the third of three talks the Dr. Robitaille presented at EU2014.

Pierre-Marie Robitaille, PhD is a Professor of Radiology at The Ohio State University, with a joint appointment in Chemical Physics. He initially trained as a spectroscopist and has wide ranging knowledge of…

View original 215 more words

DNA hints at earlier dog evolution

Swedish researchers say that dogs may have been domesticated much earlier than some other studies suggest.

A genetic study indicates that dogs may have begun to split form wolves 27,000 years ago.
The discovery, in Current Biology, challenges the view that that dogs were domesticated much more recently, around 15,000 years ago as humans changed from being hunter gatherers to farmers.

The study might also explain the deep bond between dogs and humans.

Other researchers had proposed that the domestication of dogs arose with the emergence of agriculture, when human hunter gatherers settled and formed communities.

The new study, which was led by Dr Love Dalen of the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm, challenges this view.

The transformation from wolf to dog may have been a slow one starting with subtle changes in behaviour.

“One scenario is that wolves started following humans around and domesticated themselves,” he told BBC News.

“Another is that early humans simply caught wolf cubs and kept them as pets and this gradually led to these wild wolves being domesticated. If this model is correct then dogs were domesticated by hunter gatherers that led a fairly nomadic lifestyle.”

Peter Smith, chief executive of the Wildwood Trust in Kent and a former conservation biologist, says that this might have been the start of the relationship between dogs and humans that has developed and become closer over thousands of years.

“(The study) is showing that the deep, deep connection has existed between man and wolves – now our dogs – for many tens of thousands of years and that is why we love dogs so much. They are part of our own evolution into a modern society,” he told BBC News.

The DNA was analysed from a small wolf bone found by Dr Dalen on the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia which was radiocarbon dated to be 35,000 years old.

[…]

Another interesting finding from the Swedish study is that it also shows that the modern day dogs most closely related to the ancient Taimyr are the Siberian Husky and Greenland sledge dog, according to Dr Pontus Skoglund of Harvard Medical School, who also worked on the study.

“Our study provides direct evidence that a Siberian Husky you see walking down the street shares ancestry with a wolf that roamed northern Siberia 35,000 years ago.”

via DNA hints at earlier dog evolution – BBC News.

Dark Lightning

Originally posted on MalagaBay:

Dark Lightning

Dark Lightning is a fascinating tale of discovery, obscuration and rediscovery that begins in the days when photographers used Photographic Plates.

Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.

The light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was coated on a glass plate, typically thinner than common window glass, instead of a clear plastic film.

This form of photographic material largely faded from the consumer market in the early years of the 20th century, as more convenient and less fragile films were increasingly adopted.

However, photographic plates were reportedly still being used by one photography business in London until the 1970s, and they were in wide use by the professional astronomical community as late as the 1990s.

Glass plates were far superior to film for research-quality imaging because they were extremely stable and less likely to bend or distort, especially in large-format frames for wide-field imaging.

Early plates…

View original 3,902 more words

The Recent Westerly Wind Burst in the Western Equatorial Pacific Could Help to Strengthen the 2015/16 El Niño

Originally posted on Bob Tisdale - Climate Observations:

The graphics at the NOAA GODAS website were running a few pentads (5-day periods) behind when I published the May 2015 ENSO Update.  They’re caught up now, and the Hovmoller diagram of the surface zonal wind stress along the equator, Figure 1, is showing another westerly wind burst during early May 2015 in the western equatorial Pacific.

View original 700 more words

Atmospheric Electricity

Originally posted on MalagaBay:

Atmospheric Electricity

The first edition of the textbook Physics of the Air by W. J. Humphreys was published in 1920 with a second edition appearing in 1929 and the third [and final] edition appearing in 1940.

William Jackson Humphreys (February 3, 1862 – November 10, 1949) was an American physicist and atmospheric researcher.

He worked in the fields of spectroscopy, atmospheric physics and meteorology.

In the field of spectroscopy he found the shift of spectral lines under pressure.

In atmospheric physics he found a very good model for the stratosphere in 1909.

He wrote numerous books, including a textbook titled Physics of the Air, first published in 1920 and considered a standard work of the time, though it was last published in 1940.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Jackson_Humphreys

Physics of the Air was considered “a standard work” between the 1920s and 1940s and provides a wonderful insight into Atmospheric Science before the era of

View original 5,521 more words

Nutjobbery – Reading Children Bedtime Stories Disadvantages Other Children

I reblogged a JunkScience story earlier about the story WHO has new rules for avoiding offensive names. Maybe this is to prepare the medical industry for the next generation of special snowflakes to become service users:

I don’t think parents reading their children bedtime stories should constantly have in their minds the way that they are unfairly disadvantaging other people’s children, but I think they should have that thought occasionally,’ quips [philosopher Adam] Swift.

There’s so many more pearls of lowest common denominator where the above nugget came from –

http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/philosopherszone/new-family-values/6437058

Parents! Don’t teach your kids manners. Don’t spend time sharing your knowledge or show them understanding. Don’t teach them strength so they can handle what life throws at them. Don’t teach them not to hurt others or show kindness or lead by example…in fact don’t teach them anything (except possibly subservience to the state and the chosen philosophy of the moment?)! Stop busting your guts to feed, clothe and love you’re children – you’re disadvantaging children with deadbeat parents!

*stunned*

h/t Sargon of Akkad